ER ModelsERM ReferencesERM AnthologiesPetri nets

Evolution of Entity-Relationship Models

Last update: 4 April 2005
Number of models: 100

This site contains a sample of entity-relationship (ER) models. The short citation refers to the reference used for the purpose of evaluation; there may be alternative publications, which have the same content. In the year stated, the ER model was mentioned for the first time, according to the year of the conference, additional materials or information by the author. Consequently, it may differ from the year of the reference. Any special names of the new ER models are listed. If the ancestor of a new ER model is explicitly stated in the reference, it can be found in the column descendant of. In the columns, the following abbreviations have been used: Some papers on theoretical and practical problems of ER modeling (ERM) as well as ER analogies, ER homologies and ERM surveys are contained in the list of references.The evolution of Petri nets has been investigated as well.

Show the following columns:
Short CitationYearSpecial NameDescendant ofConstructsSyntactic RulesSemanticsFocusData DefinitionData ManipulationRemarksCauseAlternative PublicationsBinary Vector (Structure)Binary Vector (Integrity)Binary Vector (Behavior)Binary Vector (Application)Binary Vector (Domain-Specifics)Expressiveness ValuesPartially Redundant Constructs
No. Short Citation Year Special Name Descendant of Constructs Syntactic Rules                                      Semantics Focus Data Definition Data Manipulation RemarksCause Alternative Publications Binary Vector Expressiveness ValuesPartially Redundant Constructs
InherentNewCitation                                            ContentStructureIntegrityBehaviorApplicationDomain-Specifics Total Data Model Application Domain Specifics Conjunctive Concepts Linked Concepts
Entity Type Relationship Type Value Sets / Attributes InventedBorrowedExpressivenessApplicabilityCorrectionIntegrationImplementationOther[E1] [E2] [E3] [E4] [E5] [E6] [E7] [E8] [E9] [E10] [E11] [E12] [E13] [E14] [E15] [E16] [E17] [E18] [E19] [E20] [E21] [E22] [E23] [E24] [E25] [E26] [E27] [E28] [E29] [E30] [E31] [E32] [E33]
1(Chen 1976)1975sg: weak sg: existence dependency, sg/l: mapping (1:N,M:N, 1:1)sg: key, sg/l: role(1) Relationship types connect entity types. (2) Entity types are assigned attributes. (3) Relationship types can be assigned attributes.formalizedgeeERM incorporates ... semantic information about the real world (p. 9),... framework from which the three existing data models may be derived (p. 10).structureX(Chen 1975)1ff1i0.
2(dos Santos et al. 1980)1979(Chen 1976)r: typer: typer: type, sg/l: roletype constructors: sum, product, correspondence (theory of data types)Different types are connected by a type constructor to form a new type.formalizedgereference to (Smith/Smith 1977)... expressing the semantic contents and the semantic structure of the data base, ... natural expression of the real world (p. 103).structure11iimfiff0.270.500.000.00S
3(Schiffner/Scheuermann 1979)1979(Chen 1976)sg: selectorsg: generalization, aggregation, sg/l: mappingXXinformalglereference to (Smith/Smith 1977) more abstractions (views) (p. 139).structure11i111ai0.240.440.000.00S
4(Scheuermann et al. 1980)1979(Scheuermann/Schiffner 1979)Xsg: generalization, aggregation, total, weak, sg/l: mappingXXformalizedge... lack of capabilities to express abstractions (p. 122), the original ERM ... [did] not ...[allow to express] any additional constraints (p. 124).structure, integrity11imm1iamif0.330.610.000.00S, W
5(Tjoa/Wagner 1980)1979(Chen 1976)Xsg: weaksg/t: attribute values 'undefined', 'unknown'Xformalizedge--mmimf0.
6(Atzeni et al. 1983)1981(Chen 1976)Xsg: subset, generalizationsg: keyXprimarily informalteltool, high level language to express transactions--(X)miff11iff0.270.500.000.00S
7(Caldiera/Quitadamo 1983)1981(Chen 1976)sg: weak sg: generalization, existence dependency, optionalXXformalge--mi101i1i0.210.390.000.00S, WH
8(De et al. 1983)1981CR: ConCept Relationship Model(Chen 1976)r: conceptr: modeling functions, sg/l: horizontal (logical, causal), vertical (logical, mathematical, part-whole, classificatory)XXformalg... capture information requirements for various levels of the organizational hierarchy (p. 455).structure, integritymi1mi110.210.330.110.00H
9(Dogac/Chen 1983)1981Xsg: weak sg: total, weak, aggregation, generalization, sg/l: mappingXXinformalgee... include the recent extensions (p. 357).X11im1iaiff0.300.560.000.00W, SH
10(Klopprogge 1983)1981TERM (Time-extended ERM)(Chen 1976)XXsg: key, role, historyXformaltll... allows a general and rigorous treatment of time,... express very general patterns of change (p. 474).time1i1i1mi10.240.440.000.00H
11(Tabourier/Nanci 1983)1981(Chen 1976)Xsg: functional dependency, sg/l: min/maxsg/l: rolerestriction: binary relationship typesformalgalternative graphic representation: Occurrences structure diagramSome kinds of integrity constraints cannot be represented (p. 73). ... produce an equivalent model with only "1 to n" binary relationships, without lack of integrity information (p. 97).integrityX1m111ff0.210.390.000.00
12(Webre 1983)1981(Scheuermann et al. 1980)Xsg: existence dependency, mapping class, restriction class, completeness classXXformalizedg... to be a need for mutual existence dependencies (p. 173). ...roles of relationship types ... not clearly defined (p. 174). ...semantic information not being modeled (p. 174).structure, integrityX1mm111m0.210.390.000.00
13(Al-Fedaghi 1983)1983(Scheuermann et al. 1980)Xsg: generalizationsg: calculated, uninherited, sg/l: keyRelationships connect attributes (equality).informalgalternative representation of generalization hierarchy; analogy to multidimensional data analysis... represent particular concepts of the analyzed [petroleum engineering] environment (p. 761)domain (process industry), structure1mi1mi10.210.390.000.00S
14(Bertino 1983)1983(Chen 1976)sg: fragmentationsg: fragmentationsg: keyXformalgvertical fragmentation corresponds to creating new entity/relationship types... represent fragmentation schema (p. 189).structurem111m00.
15(Lenzerini/Santucci 1983)1983(Chen 1976)sg: generalization, subsetsg: generalization, subset, sg/l: min/max sg/l: identifierRelationships connect relationships (generalization).formalizedg/tlanguage to specify integrity constraints... the problem of expressing cardinality constraints is always an open one (p. 529).integrity, structureXiimi111111iff0.360.670.000.00S
16(Nakano 1983)1983Logic-oriented ER(Chen 1976)Xsg: classification, aggregation, generalization, sg: roleXformaltlanguage to specify integrity constraints... describe a conceptual structure, a variety of integrity constraints and high-level queries (p. 551).structure, integrity11i1m11i10.270.500.000.00S
17(Sakai 1983)1983(Chen 1976)XXsg: mulitvalued, compound, identifierbehavior descriptionXformalg/telPetri Nets represent behavior of entities and relationships, drawn together with ER diagramA conceptual schema should contain descriptions of both aspects [structure/behavior], (p. 111).structure, behavior(Sakai 1984)mii11im110.270.500.000.00
18(Tabourier 1983)1983EROS (Entity, Relationship, Occurences Structure)(Tabourier/Nanci 1983)r: structurer: structure, sg:min/maxXXformaltelanguage to specify integrity constraints[ER diagrams] may present a lack of precision (p. 565).X(X)1m11111ff0.270.500.000.00
19(Elmasri et al. 1985)1985ECR (Entity-Category-Relationship)(Chen 1976)r/sg: category, generalization/subset categorysg/l: min/max-participation, sg: total/partial/functional participation (derived)sg/l: compound, multivalued, role, d: identifierXformalizedgel... [ER model] not sufficient to represent some important data semantics (p. 77).structure1ifff11f111ii1ff0.480.890.000.00S, J, T
20(Ferg 1985)1985(Chen 1976)XXsg/l: keyXinformalgeID-dependence on time periods... representing the time dimension (p. 280).time1m1ii1i0.210.390.000.00ZH
21(Gilberg 1985)1985Information Engineeringsg: subentitysg: recursive, intersection data groupsXXinformalgseparate subschema for each primary entity[large ER diagrams] proved unreadable (p. 320)X1i1mii0.180.330.000.00SH
22(Hsu 1985)1985(Chen 1976)sg: semantic, d: weaksg: semantic, operational (plural, functional, mandatory)sg: key, roleXinformalte... integrating the ... top-down analysis and bottom-up synthesis methodologies (p. 56).X1111i0.
23(Lenzerini 1985)1985SERM (Semantic ERM)r: categoryr: category, sg: subset, part-of, cardinality-ratior: category, sg: roleSubset-relationship connects relationships.formaltl... integration of the original Entity-Relationship Model and many proposed extensions (p. 271). . ... give a sound foundation to possible implementations of a high-level programming language (p. 272).XXi1i111i110.270.500.000.00S
24(Qian/Wiederhold 1985)1985sg: primary, secondarysg: subtype, associationsg: key, single-/multi-valued, constrained, derivedXinformalte... provide syntactic embodiment of semantic data model and a uniform linguistic tool for data definition, query, manipulation (p. 46).X11i1111ii0.270.500.000.00S
25(Velez 1985)1985TIGREXsg: min/maxsg: role, typeconstructor (programming languages)The application of a constructor results in a typ.informaltlThe aim ... is to handle multi-media data in an office automation context (p. 82).domain (multi-media)X1i11110.180.330.000.00
26(Bruno/Elia 1987)1986(Chen 1976)Xsg: static/dynamic specialization, sg/l: cardinalityXstate, transitionXinformalg/t...[ERM] does not give any information on the behavior of entities (p. 169). .... integrating requirements specification and simulation (p. 169).behaviorXmi1mii1i10.270.500.000.00S, Z
27(Dittrich et al. 1987)1986CERM (Complex-Entity/Relationship Model)(Chen 1976)r: objects, sg: complex objects, c: versionssg/l: min/maxsg/l: predefined domainsXprimarily informalgee... [the ERM] lacks a notion of... [composite] objects and a set of operators capable of dealing with these aspects (p. 422).structure, time11imf111i0.270.500.000.00S
28(Eder et al. 1987)1986BIER (Behavior Integrated E-R)(Chen 1976)sg: weak, subentitysg: generalizationsg/l: surrogatestates, activities (Petri nets)(1) States are connected to entities.,(2) Activities connect states.informalgePetri Nets represent behavior of entities.. introduce a general framework ... which includes both static and dynamic aspects ... (p. 147).behavior, timemi1imii10.240.440.000.00S
29(Junet 1987)1986(Chen 1976)sg: weaksg: sub-relation, generic-relation, sg/l: cardinalitysg/l: key, sg: multivalued-role, mandatory/not-mandatory rolesXformalg/tl...., the meaning of a role in the original E-R model is not powerful enough to capture some enhanced semantic of the real world (p. 305).structureX(X)11i1if1ii10.300.560.000.00W, S
30(Lipeck/Neumann 1987)1986(Chen 1976)r: objects; sg: complex, generalization, partition; sd: geoobjects, map objectssg/l: functionalsg/l: identifierXformalg/tll...[extended ERM] is adapted to geoscientific needs ... (p. 68).domain (geographic IS)1mi111iii10.300.500.000.17J, TH
31(Teorey et al. 1986)1986sg: weak, subset, generalizationsg: connectivity, membership classsg/l: identifier, descriptorXinformalge... inadequacy of the initial [ER] modeling constructs (p. 201).X1i11i1i0.210.390.000.00W, S
32(Downs 1992)1987SSADMXsg: optional, exclusivesg/l: keyrestriction: binary relationship typesinformalgeERM as a step of SSADM (Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method)--111i110.180.330.000.00H
33(Flory/Giard 1988)1987(Chen 1976)sd: spacio-temporalsgL: cardinalitysg/l: composite, identifier, roleXinformalgespacio-temporal entity types are generally hidden in ER diagrams... [application in manufacturing]... leads to new requirements which are not always matched by conventional systems (p. 249).domain (manufacturing)11f1i0.
34(Hohenstein et al. 1987)1987(Chen 1976)r: objects, sg/l: complex objects, versionssg/l: min/max, sg: derivedsg/l: key, role, multivalued, sg/l: optional, derivedintegrity boxes, type construction(1) Integrity boxes are connected to entity types (relationship types, attributes). (2) Different input entity types are connected by type constructors to form separate output entity types [requirements].formalgl... [extended ERM] to be suited for the design of standard and non-standard applications ... (p. 59). ... integrate all important semantic concepts of recent semantic data models (p. 64). ... shall form the basis for several database and information systems design tools (p. 59).structureXX11111i111ii11ff0.450.830.000.00J, TO
35(ISO 1987)1987ISOXsg/l: min/max, functional dependentsg/l: identifierXinformalgl... providing a framework for the design of conceptual schema languages (p. 2).X01f1110.
36(Lazimy 1988)1987ERA (Entity-Relationship-Attribute)(Chen 1976)XXsg: action, sg/l: probabilisticconstraint set, transformation setConstraint sets and transformation sets connect attributes.formalizedgl[new ERM] .. sufficiently rich for representing both transactional and conceptual information (p. 133).structure, uncertainty1m1mim0.180.330.000.00F
37(Kappel/Schrefl 1989)1988BIERrf: BIERrf: BIERrf: BIERcomplex activitiesComplex activities connect states.informalge... [new ERM] considers the structural as well as the behavioral aspects (p. 311).structure, behaviormmmmmi10.210.390.000.00S
38(Navathe/Pillalamarri 1989)1988OOER (Object-Oriented ERM)(Chen 1976)sg: weak, generalization, specialization, classificationsg: associationsg: keyoperation (object-orientation)Operations are connected to entity types.informalgee... enhance ER model to improve its abstraction capability (p. 186).structure1mi11f1iaif0.330.610.000.00W, S
39(Put 1989)1988(Scheuermann et al. 1980)Xsg: total, weak, aggregation, generalization, sg/l: mappingXactionXformalizedg/tlactions are the leaf nodes of sequence diagrams, which are used in addition to ER diagrams, verification of conceptual designA conceptual schema should include all relevant aspects of the real world, both static and dynamic (p. 423).behavior11i1iai110.270.500.000.00SH
40(Sinz 1988)1988SER (Structured ER)(Chen 1976)sg: ER-Typsg: complexity, subtype-hierarchy, is-a-hierarchysg/l: keyXinformalge... Verbesserung der semantischen Aussagefähigkeit von ER-Diagrammen (S. 191). ... fünf verbesserungsfähige Schwachstellen des ERM (S. 193).structureX1i1111ii0.240.440.000.00S, J, T
41(Carlson et al. 1990)1989NER (Nested ER)(Chen 1976)sg: complexsg: complexsg: complex, keyXformalizedge[improve] comprehensibility, retrievability, updatability (p. 44).X1mi11imi0.240.440.000.00SC
42(Davis/Bonnell 1990)1989EARL(Chen 1976)Xsg: IS-A, PART-OF, AGGR-OF, INST-OF, MEMBER-OF, ROLE-OF,sg/l: min/maxsg: identifierconstraint-linksConstraint links connect relationship types.informalg... capture abstraction relations (p. 95). ... express certain types of cardinality constraints (p. 96). coupling concept abstraction with constraint specification (p. 95).structure, integrity(X)11i11111110.300.560.000.00
43(Elmasri/Navathe 2000)1989EER (Enhanced ER)(Chen 1976)sg: weak, subclass, superclass, categorysg/l: cardinality, sg: total participation, identifying, disjoint/overlapping total/partial specialization, aggregationsg: composite, multivalued, derived, key, sg/l: roleXformalizedgee... To represent these requirements [of newer applications] as accuratly and clearly as possible.... ... the ER model can be enhanced to include these concepts [of semantic data models] .. (p. 73)structureXX11111f1iaii0.330.610.000.00W, S, J,TH
44(Embley/Ling 1990)1989E2R (E-squared-R)(Chen 1976)sg: lexical, non-lexicalsg: functionally dependent, participation, union/partition generalization/specialization, sg/l: min/maxsg: composite, sg/l: roleXinformalgenormalized EER models... capture a wider range of design-dependent real-world semantics (p. 111). ... improved, synergistic database design methodology (p. 111). ... design work cannot be completed in the ER model alone (p. 112).X1i11i111ii0.300.560.000.00S, J, T
45(Lazimy 1990)1989E2R (E-squared-R)(Chen 1976)Xsg: association, aggregation, class-subclass, membershipsg: derived, objective/goalfunctions(1) Relationships connect attributes. (2) Functions connect attributes.formalizedtlknowledge-based design.. a need ... [to] represent semantically-rich knowledge as well as a variety of activities (p. 130).knowledge111m1mai0.240.440.000.00S
46(Kerschberg et al. 1990)1989KER (Knowledge-based ER)(Teorey et al. 1986)rf (Teorey et al. 1986)sg: cardinality, min/maxrf (Teorey et al. 1986), sg: cardinalityformulasinference rules (knowledge-based systems)Formulas and inference rules connect attributes.informaltlThere was a ... need to specify rule-based knowledge as well as object-oriented data specifications (p. 256).knowledgem1111111i0.270.500.000.00S
47(Parent/Spaccapietra 1992)1989ERC+sg: complex objectssg: optional, min/max, generalizationsg: surrogate key, complex, sg/l: roleXformalg/tlA richer semantic model [for integration of heterogeneous schemas] was needed (p. 69). ... besides .. expressive power, friendliness was assigned as additional requirement... (p. 69).structureX1i1i111i0.240.440.000.00SO, C
48(Teorey et al. 1989)1989(Teorey et al. 1986)rf (Teorey et al. 1986)rf (Teorey et al. 1986), sg: grouping, exclusiverf (Teorey et al. 1986)XinformalgeIn an ER diagram with 1000 entities [...] the overall structure will probably not be very clearX1mim1i11i0.270.500.000.00SH
49(Barker 1990)1990(Chen 1976)sg: subtypesg: cardinality, optional, exclusive, non-transferablesg: identifierrestriction: binary relationship typesinformalge--1i1f1i11ii0.300.560.000.00SH, X
50(Brunet et al. 1991)1990ERC+rf ERc+rf ERc+rf ERc+action, event (object orientation)(1) Actions are connected to entity types. (2) Events connect actions.informalge... for the description of behavioral aspects (p. 211).behaviormi11mm1i10.270.500.000.00S
51(Elmasri et al. 1991)1990TEER(Elmasri/Navathe 2000)rf (Elmasri/Navathe 2000)rf (Elmasri/Navathe 2000)rf (Elmasri/Navathe 2000)role type(1) Each role type is associated with a single entity type. (2) Role types can be connected by relationship types.formalgel.. conventional DBMS lack the power to describe and query information related to time aspects (p.239).timem11ff11f1mmmi0.390.720.000.00S
52(Hsu/Rattner 1990)1990TSER (Two-Stage ER)(Chen 1976)Xsg: mandatory, functionalsg: keycontext, subjectXinformaltefocus on system implementation, separate SER and OER diagrams... consolidating data structures across the manufacturing facility (p. 758).X111a0.
53(Martin 1990)1990Information Engineeringsg: subtypessg: min/max, exclusivesg/l: rolerestriction: binary relationship typesinformalgexclusive relationships1i1111i0.210.390.000.00S
54(Schrefl 1991)1990BIERrf BIERrf BIERrf BIERabstract activities, abstract statesrf BIERinformalg[BIER] ... lacks refinement primitives for states and activities (p. 119).behaviorXm1i1imm10.240.440.000.00H
55(Rochfeld et al. 1991)1990(Chen 1976)Xsg/l: min/maxsg: key(inclusive/exclusive) functional integrity constraintRelationships connect relationship types.primarily informalg[remove] ... a modelling constraint (p. 149).X1m1111110.240.440.000.00
56(Zhu et al. 1991)1990HAMMER (Hierarchical Abstraction Mechanism on Models in ER)sg: hyperentitysg: min/max-participation, association, aggregation, hierarchysg: rolesmodel, hypermodel(1) Entity types and relationship types are connected to models. (2) Hypermodels are connected to models.formalizedte[HAMMER] grew out of the concerns with the complexities associated with large conceptual models (p. 75)X11i11111i0.270.500.000.00S
57(Ferg 1991)1991Xsg: participation cardinality, look across cardinality, generalized cardinalityXXformalizedge[certain ER notations] are found not to be capable.. of expressing [...] cardinality constraints (p. 1)integrity1f1110.
58(Gogolla/Hohenstein 1991)1991EERdifferent EERXsg: min/max,derived, functionalsg: multivalued, optional, derived, components, role, keytype constructionDifferent input entity types are connected by type constructors to form separate output entity types [requirements].formaltll... concentrating nearly all concepts of ... semantic data-models...., ... provide our extended ER model with a formal mathematical semantics (p. 369) XX(Engels et al. 1992/93)i1111111i111ai110.480.890.000.00SO
59(Heuser/Peres 1991)1991ER-T(Chen 1976), Petri netssg: control placesXXexternal agents, transaction sets (Petri nets)Transaction sets are connected to external agents, control places, entity/relationship types.informalg... integrated modeling of static and dynamic properties... (p. 247).behaviormimf1ai110.270.500.000.00S
60(Kouramajian/Elmasri 1991)1991TEER (Temporal Extended ER)sg: weaksg: superclass/subclasssg: temporal, multivalued, composite, surrogate keytemporal elementeach entity/relationship type is associated with a temporal elementformaltl[current DBMS] ... lack the power to describe and query information related to time aspects... ; handle both valid and transaction time (p. 671).timem1imm11i1ii0.330.610.000.00W, Sc
61(Loucopoulos et al. 1991)1991ERT (ER-Time)r: class, sg: time period class, complex object, derivedsg: generalization/specialization, derived, sg/l: cardinalitysg/l: complex, roleXformalizedg/tll... capturing and representation of business rules (p. 323). ... the need for expressiveness power of conceptual modelling formalisms... (p. 324).integrity(Theodoulidis et al. 1991), (Theodoulidis et al. 1992)11i1i111iiff0.360.670.000.00S, J, TD
62(Moyne et al. 1991)1991(Teorey et al. 1989)rf (Teorey et al. 1989)rf (Teorey et al. 1989)rf (Teorey et al. 1989)sequential ordered functionSequential ordered functions connect relationship types.formalizedge... represent ordering and time sequencing of process recipe information (p. 421).domain (process industry)mmm1i1mmi0.270.500.000.00H, OR
63(Tanaka et al. 1991)1991ER-RXsg: total participation, sg/l: cardinalitysg/l: keyrule objectsRule objects are connected to entity types, relationship types or attributes.informalg/tel... introduction of active aspects of information systems in the conceptual schema (p. 60).behavior1ii1f1ia110.300.560.000.00H
64(Tauzovich 1991)1991TERXsg/l: min/max, optional, snapshot cardinality, lifetime cardinalityXXinformalge[current ER approaches] ... ignore time (p. 163)time1111110.
65(Thalheim 2000)1991HERM+sg: cluster, weaksg: min/maxsg: nested, keyintegrity constraints, operations, type construction(1) Relationships connect relationships. (2) Integrity constraints/operations are connected to entity or relationship types.formaltll[HERM] ... has a strong theoretical basis (p. 9). The modeling is more natural and can be applied in a simple manner (p. 9). The theory is applicable to practical needs (p. 10). The results of the design are much simpler than with other approaches (p. 10). The model is easy to understand, simple and comprehensible (p. 11). The model is capable to support sophisticated database design techniques (p. 11).XXXX(Thalheim 1999)111111111111ii111110.581.000.110.00S
66(Wei/Teorey 1991)1991ORAC(Teorey et al. 1989)r: abstract objectssg: generalization, categorization, aggregation, min/maxr: literal objects, sg: complex, multivalued, surrogate keys, sg/l: roleconstraint primitivesConstraint primitives connected to relationship types.formalg... answer these criticisms [concerning the ER model]... (p. 32). ... humanly intuitive, semantically expressive, and can be mapped into simple mathematical concepts (p. 32).XX(X)11i1111111i0.330.610.000.00S
67(Batini et al. 1992)1992(Chen 1976)sg: generalization (sg/l: total/partial, disjoint/overlapping), subsetsg: rings, sg/l: min/maxsg: identifier (external/mixed), composite, sg/l: multi-valued, optional, mandatoryformalizedgle... present basic elements and advanced features of the ER model ... (p. 31).X1i11f111ii0.300.560.000.00S
68(Garcia/Sheng 1992)1992SEER (Synthesized Extended ER)(Teorey et al. 1986)rf (Teorey et al. 1986)rf (Teorey et al. 1986)rf (Teorey et al. 1986)focal objects, transaction access, statistics, procedures (transaction-modeling, frames)Xinformalgseparate diagram... formalize the descriptions of distributed transaction information (p. 181). ...., facilitating relational distribution design (p. 181).behaviorX11i11i1i10.270.500.000.00SH
69(Hainaut 1992)1992(Chen 1976)sd: spacesg/l: min/max, specializationsg/l: compound, role, optional/mandatory, multivalued, identifiergroupGroup connects attributes or roles.formalizedg.. extension of the [ER] model to describe main statistical aspects of data (p. 79).domain (IS planning)1i111111i0.270.500.000.00S
70(Han/Li 1992)1992(Chen 1976)sg: subentity, virtualsg: generalization, virtual, cardinalitysg: complex, virtual, multivalued, keyXinformaltee... design of deductive databases (p. 192).knowledgem111111i110.300.560.000.00S
71(Behm/Teorey 1994)1993(Chen 1976)sg: aggregatesg: subset, sg/l: mappings/l: structured, derivedrelationship operators, constraints(1) Relationship operators connect relationship types. (2) Domain-based constraints connect attributes.informalg/te... extend the ER model to support these additional business rules and constraints (p. 46)integritym1m11111i110.330.610.000.00S
72(Dijkstra 1994)1993O2XER (Object Oriented eXtensions to the ERM)ERC+r: objects, sg: complex objects, c: versionablesg: generalizationsg: complex, multivalued, optional, roleXinformalg/t... [EER models] lack the support for complex objects, versioning, and slightly explore the aggregation concept (p. 13).structure, time11im111mmi0.300.560.000.00S
73(Garzotto et al. 1994)1993HDM (Hypertext Design Model)different EERsg: derivedr: application web type, sg: derived application web, cardinality, optionalr: unit, sg: componentindex, guided tourApplication web types/indexes/guided tours connect entity types, components or application web types.formalizedtGoal of HDM is ... the specification of structural and navigational aspects of hypermedia (p. 179).domain (hypermedia)1i111110.210.390.000.00D
74(Heuser et al. 1993)1993(Batini et al. 1992)r: entity placer: relationship place, dead linksr: attribute placelive links (Petri nets)Live links connect places, transitions, entity types, relationship types.formalgER diagrams are translated into Petri nets.... the need also to include dynamic properties (p. 275). ... the semantic of an E-R diagram ... can be expressed in terms of a high-level Petri net (p. 276).behaviormi101i1i110.270.500.000.00SH
75(NIST 1993)1993IDEF1Xsg: identifier-dependent sg: identifying, non-identifying, optional, mandatory, categorization, cardinalitysg: typed, key, sg/l: roleXinformalg.. support integration (p. i). the following requirements: .... consistent, extensible, transformable; .. easy for users to grasp, yet powerful and robust; ... teachability; automatable (p. ii).structureXXXX1111i1i0.210.390.000.00H
76(Norrie 1994)1993sg/l: min/max, sg: is_asg: complexXformalg/teeHow can [ER and object-oriented modeling] be combined to support the development of database application systems (p. 391)?Xmi1111i10.240.440.000.00S
77(Pernul et al. 1994)1993extended ERsd: security objectr: security object, sg/l: cardinalitysg: identifiersecurity constraintsSecurity constraints connect attributes.formalg/tel... capture security semantics (p. 166).domain (security)mi1f1ii110.270.500.000.00SH
78(Winter 1994)1993sd: derived sg: existential dependency, aggregation, generalization, cardinalitysg: keyXinformalt... allow an utilization of database trigger mechanisms (p. 60).X1mi11ii10.240.440.000.00SH, D
79(Gandhi et al. 1994)1994LER (Leveled ER)(Chen 1976)sg: complex, c: aspectsg: is_part_ofsg/l: identifier, sg: multi-valed aspectXformalg... the current proposal overcomes ... [limitations of existing ER models] (p. 421).XXimi1111ii0.270.500.000.00SH
80(Ling/Teo 1994)1994OOER (Object-Oriented ER)(Chen 1976)sg: weak, complexsg: m-n, recursive, existence dependent, identifier dependent, ISA, UNION, INTERSEcTIONsg: multi-valued, composite, derived, methodsXformalizedtl... inability to judge the quality of an OO schema design, the presence of inheritence conflicts ..., the lack of ... support for different relationship types ... and views (p. 241).structureXX111m111iii0.300.560.000.00SH
81(Liu et al. 1994)1994EVER (Evolutionary ER)(Teorey et al. 1986)sg: visible, defunctsg: visible, defunctsg: domain-changed, renamed, resumed, derived, dependent, independent, keyversion derivationVersion derivation connects defunct and visible entity types.formalizedgl... provide for the specification of the derivation of relationships between schema versions (p. 133).timem111mmmm10.270.440.110.00
82(Oh/Navathe 1995)1995SEER (Security Enhanced ER)(Chen 1976)sd: user groupsd: securityXSecurity relationship connects user, entity or relationship types.informalt... address the conceptual modeling of security features and authorization histories... (p. 170).domain (security)m1mm0.
83(Green/Benyon 1996)1996ERMIA (ER for Information Artifacts)sd: pile, chain, sorted list, unsearchable, hashed, conceptualsg: optionality, sg/l: cardinalitysd: perceptually codedXinformalge... analyse structures with respect to human abilities rather than computer ones (p. 803).domain (cognitive science)m1011110.
84(Lee et al. 1996)1996TEERXsg/l: cardinalitysg: composite, multivalued, time seriesXinformalglThe concept of time series, ..., does not fit well within these [temporal data] models (p. 341).timemmmmm111mmmmff0.420.780.000.00
85(Steeg 1996)1996ERBM (ER and Behavior Model)HERMrf HERMrf HERMrf HERMbehavior properties, behavior specificationXformaltll... derive an efficient database application to avoid logical/physical tuning (p. 106). [by applying the proposed approach]... logical/physical tuning measures ... can be ... avoided (p. 105). X11mm1i1111mmmm110.480.890.000.00
86(Chu/Zhang 1997)1997general EER Xr: association, sg: ISA, sg/l: min/maxXrole classes (object-oriented)Role classes are connected to entity types or role classes.informalge... support object evolution and extension for long lived objects (p. 257).structure1im111i0.210.390.000.00S
87(Moody 1997)1997Information EngineeringXsg: cardinality, optionalityXsubject areasEach entity type is assigned to one subject area.informalOn of the ... limitations of the Entity Relationship Model is its inability to cope with the size and complexity of data models encountered in real world situations (p. 184).Xmim101mi10.240.440.000.00S
88(Bergamaschi/Sartori 1998)1998CHRONOIDEFI1Xsg/l: temporalsg: aggregation, generalization, cardinality, optionalityXtemporal elementEach entity type is associated with a temporal element.formalizedge... necessity of representing time varying information (p. 35).time1mi1ii111mimf0.390.720.000.00S, Z
89(Lee/Elmasri 1998)1998ITDM (Integrated Temporal Data Model)EER (enhanced)Xsg: generalization, sg/l:min/maxsg: time-varying, time-series, surrogate,sg/l: roleXformaltel... we ... formalize a conceptual model that supports time-series objects as well as traditional version-based objects (p. 21).timem1i111i111mi0.360.670.000.00S, Z
90(Sapia et al. 1999)1998ME/R (Multidimensional ER)(ISO 1987)sg: dimension levelsg: fact, classificationXformalizedgIn order to allow the natural representation of the multidimensional semantics ... (p. 109)multidimensionalityX111m1110.210.220.330.00
91(Balaban/Shoval 1999b)1999EER (Enhanced ER)general EER Xsg: cardinality, specializationsg: composite, multivalued, key, roleprimitive methods (abstract data types)Primitive methods are associated with entity and relationship types.formaltThe integrity methods ... are automatically created for a given EER diagram (p. 14).X(Balaban/Shoval 2002)1i11111111ii110.420.780.000.00S, J, T
92(Badia 2000)2000(Chen 1976)sg: cardinality, total, partialsg: complex, multi-valued, roleconstraintgeneralized quantifier (logics)Xformalt... limitations on what can be expressed in the [ER] model (p. 323).integrity1i11m111i1ii110.420.780.000.00S,TH
93(Castellani et al. 2000)2000MCX(Tardieu et al. 1974)Xsg/l: min/max-cardinality, target classXXinformalg.. one must be able to mention multiple cardinality couples (p. 34). ... the cardinalities of n-ary (n>=3) relationships defined with the chen model are ambiguous (p. 32).integrityXmm1110.
94(Karlapalem et al. 2001)2001EREC (ER for e-ContraCts)ER-Rrf ER-Rrf ER-R, sg/l: min/maxrf ER-Rsd: exception, contract eventRule objects are connected to entity types, relationship types or attributes.informalg/texceptions are represented as rules... conceptually modelling e-contracts ... (p. 193).domain (electronic commerce)11immm111ai110.390.720.000.00S
95(Ma et al. 2001)2001FEER (Fuzzy Extended ER)EERsg: weaksg: specialization, category, aggregationsg: key, multivalued, composite, fuzzygrade of membershipgrades of membership are associated with entity types, relationship types, attributesformalizedg/te.. to cope with imperfect as well as complex objects ... (p. 697).uncertainty11i111mimii1110.420.610.330.00W, S, J, T
96(Wagner 2001)2001AOR (Agent-Object-Relationship)(Barker 1990)sd: event, action, claim, commitment, agent, objectsg: specialization, composition, sd: sends, receives, does, perceivesrf: Barker (1990)XinformalgeER modelling does not account for the dynamic aspects of information and knowledge processing systems (p. 114).domain (institutional agents)(Wagner 2002)mimm1i1mim110.360.560.000.33SH
97(Bowers et al. 2002)2002(Chen 1976)r: schematic, sd: authoritativer: schematic, sg/l: min/maxsg: complex, identifier, sd: mark values, sd/l: role, optional,anchorEntity types and relationship types may be associated with at most one anchor.formalg/t... providing structured access to unstructured information sources (p. 90)...domain (hypermedia)1111111i0.240.440.000.00R
98(Vert et al. 2002)2002Xsg: subset, cardinality, optionality, sd/l: fuzzy spatialXXformalizedg/tuncertainty is extensively treated... express ... different degrees of relevance to a GIS user's specific needs (p. 165).domain (geographic IS)1i11i1i1110.300.390.330.00SH
99(Psaila 2003)2003ERX (ER for XML)(Batini et al. 1992)Xsg: alternative, sd: containment, sg/l: min/maxsg: impliedXinformalg/t[ERX] allows to deal with concepts coming from XML documents at the conceptual level (p. 378).domain (XML)m10i1111mi0.270.500.000.00OR
100(Shimazu 2003)2003RER (Refined ER)(Chen 1976)Xsg: generalizationsg: identifier, derived, roleXformaltderived attributes are indicated, but storedThe purpose of an RER model is to apply ILP [Inductive Logic Programming] (p. 390).knowledge111fmi0.180.330.000.00S
Copyright(a) Susanne Patig, 2005